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By Chris Henry Osprey
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Just one interval in heritage is straight away, indelibly and uniquely associated with the full sector of the Scottish and English Border nation, and that's the time of the Reivers.
Whenever somebody mentions ‘Reiver’, no-one hesitates so as to add ‘Border’. it truly is an inextricable organization, and rightly so. Nowhere else in Britain within the smooth period, or certainly in Europe, did civil order holiday down over any such broad region, or for this sort of very long time. For greater than a century the hoof-beats of numerous raiding events drummed over the border. From Dumfriesshire to the excessive wastes of East Cumbria, from Roxburghshire to Redesdale, from the lonely valley of Liddesdale to the fort urban of Carlisle, swords and spears spoke whereas the legislations remained silent. Fierce relatives loyalty counted for every little thing whereas the foundations of nationality counted for nothing.
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Additional resources for 25-Pounder Field Gun 1939-72
S. 28 Wright, who was prone to exaggerate opiate consumption, may actually have underestimated the problem. Another investigator, Frederick J. Masters, observed that “during the years of heavy duties the regular trafﬁc fell off more than half, although it is well known that during these years the local market was glutted. ”29 The situation became so serious that in 1888 the secretary of the treasury, Charles S. Fairchild, urged Congress to prohibit all importation of smoking opium. The Extent of Opiate Addiction 17 Table 3 Imposts on crude opium, smoking opium, and morphine or its salts, August 30, 1842, to June 30, 1914.
Turkish opium not exported, it is reasonable to assume, was either lost at sea or consumed at home. Let us suppose, for the sake of establishing a maximum level of domestic consumption, that all of the consignments not landed in foreign ports were landed safely in America. 56. To express this as a quantity, some approximation of value per pound is needed. 77, which yields an average consumption of 27,238 pounds per annum. This amount is of particular interest in that prior to August 30, 1842, there was no duty on opium.
In 1885 Dr. James D. 21 Most opium and morphine addicts were also native-born. 3 percent of that city’s population in 1880. 24 With the exception of Chinese opium smokers (to be discussed later), immigrants contributed relatively little to the incidence of opiate addiction in America. In geographic terms, opium and morphine addicts were concentrated in the South. Table 2 shows the number of addicts attending narcotic clinics in 34 cities between 1919 and 1924. Most, though not all, of these addicts used opium or morphine.
25-Pounder Field Gun 1939-72 by Chris Henry Osprey